mayo 12, 2020 ·

Preposiciones de tiempo y de lugar en inglés | Vamos English Academy

¿Cuándo se utilizan las preposiciones de lugar en inglés? y ¿Cuáles son las preposiciones de tiempo en inglés? Definición. Usos. Normas.

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Las preposiciones en inglés se someten a una única simple norma. Y, a diferencia de la mayoría de las normas, esta no tiene ninguna excepción.

Regla: Luego de una preposición, sólo puede haber un sustantivo. 

Nunca debe estar acompañado un verbo.

Por sustantivo, nos referimos a:

  • noun (bird, computer, coffee) | sustantivo (pájaro, computadora, café).
  • proper noun (name) (Paris, Johanna) | nombre propio (París, Johanna).
  • pronoun (they, her, you) | pronombre (ellos, ella, vos).
  • noun group (my first job) | grupo de sustantivos (mi primer trabajo).
  • gerund (running) | gerundio (corriendo)

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Un verbo y un gerundio son dos tipos de palabras distintas, por eso no se quiebra la regla. Un gerundio es una forma no pronominal del verbo. Esto quiere decir que siempre va a tener un aspecto (en español terminan en -ando y -iendo) y no se conjuga de acuerdo a la persona. Un gerundio, tanto en español como en inglés, actúa como un adverbio, es decir muestra la circunstancia del verbo.

Ejemplo: I ate dinner before coming to the party, give me my cocktail.

Preposiciones de tiempo: in, on, at, etc.

Se utilizan de acuerdo a los siguientes parámetros:

Preposition | PreposiciónUsages | UsosExamples | Ejemplos
Centuries & long periods | Siglos y períodos de tiempo extensosWhat? Didn’t that happen in the 19th century? – We’re thinking about moving together sometime in the future.
Seasons | EstacionesShe has been there many times in the summer. – Did he say something about visiting our mom in the winter?
In Years | AñosMy favorite singer was born in 1993. – Denim was in fashion in the 2000s.
Months | MesesMy best friend’s birthday is in June. – Weren’t they getting married in December?
Times of the day | Momentos en el díaMy boyfriend often enjoys healthy snacks in the afternoon. – I love getting up at 5:30 am in the morning.
Days | Días– My mom hates going shopping on Tuesdays. – People go to church on Sundays.
On Dates |  FechasThe baby is due on the second of May. – She’s arriving on the fifth of July.
Particular days | Días específicosThey’re planning to give me flowers on my graduation day. – Carla gave her girlfriend a watch on Valentine’s day.
At Clock time | Hora de relojMy grandmother goes to bed sharply at 10 pm. – My husband leaves for work at 7 am.
Precise times | Momentos en particularat noon, at lunchtime, at night, at sunset, etc. – They go to sleep at midnight and wake up at noon.

Preposiciones de lugar: in, on, at, behind, above, in front of, under,…

Estas describen la posición de una persona o cosa en relación con otra persona o cosa.

Esta imagen explica visualmente el uso adecuado de cada preposición, y a continuación, una serie de ejemplos con cada una: 

Above / over

  1. That plane is flying directly above us.
  2. Wasn’t your character’s name supposed to be above mine?
  3. The wine spread all over the white rug.

Under / beneath / below

  1. Can’t you see she’s way below your standards?
  2. Check beneath the pillow, maybe it’s there.
  3. It’s recommended to hide under a table when there’s an earthquake.

Beside

  1. Paul said something about seeing your glasses beside your books on your nightstand.
  2. Yes, that’s the one. Right beside the blue one.

Through

  1. They will be passing through the tunnel to get to their destination.
  2. I bought the red dress I liked. It will come through the mail, eventually.

Between

  1. The boy I like has a beautiful Italian nose between two stunning brown eyes. 
  2. Why am I feeling like there’s some kind of tension between you and me?

In

  1. I want to let you know that you’re very welcome to come in, whenever you want.
  2. Are you sure that all the Christmas decorations will fit in this box?

Out

  1. Those two guys were totally out of control last night.
  2. The dog needs to go on a walk every day. She needs to get out more and exercise a bit.

Inside

  1. The cats? They love being inside the house.
  2. I forgot my keys inside my aunt’s car, you didn’t.

Outside

  1. When it’s sunny outside, our grandchildren adore playing in our garden.
  2. He wants to celebrate his birthday outside, anywhere but home.

On

  1. You left your envelopes on the table, don’t forget to take them with you.
  2. Those were the men working on the rooftop.

Off

  1. His shoes were off by then.
  2. Please, keep your feet off the grass.

Up

  1. He was up a ladder painting the wall.
  2. As they were climbing up the narrow mountain road, they could observe the sea below them.

Down

  1. For the current moment, she’s living just down the street.
  2. To get there, remember to go down the road until you reach the traffic lights.

Across

  1. The Jones live just across the street.
  2. We used to take a ferry across the East River to visit your parents.

Around

  1. My father lives just around the corner of the pastry shop on Collins Avenue.
  2. All around the world, people want to be loved.

Into

  1. Quite the situation you got yourself into, huh?
  2. She turned around and walked off into the sunset.

Near

  1. I want us to be near, always and forever.
  2. Was your wineglass the one near mine?

Para aquellos que quieren probar su comprensión auditiva, les dejamos este video informativo sobre las preposiciones usadas tanto para tiempo, como para lugar.
Créditos para: Justin, de RealLife English.

Practicá: a continuación, completá según consideres que sea la respuesta (de acuerdo a lo anteriormente aprendido):

1. Columbus sailed to the Americas _____ the 16th century.

2. The Beatles were popular _____ the 1960s. 

3. They have a house ______ the river.

4. The answer is ______ the bottom of the page.

5. Tom should be ______ the plane now.

6. There are a lot of magnets ______ the fridge. 

7. We are meeting ____ Friday morning.

8. I often get sleepy ____ the afternoon.

9. His son was born ____ the 24th of August.

10. Mobile phones became popular ____ the nineties.

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